3 years ago

Climate change drives expansion of Antarctic ice-free habitat

Climate change drives expansion of Antarctic ice-free habitat
Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Iadine Chadès, Ben Raymond, Aleks Terauds, Justine D. Shaw, Richard A. Fuller, Jasmine R. Lee
Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity occurs almost exclusively in ice-free areas that cover less than 1% of the continent. Climate change will alter the extent and configuration of ice-free areas, yet the distribution and severity of these effects remain unclear. Here we quantify the impact of twenty-first century climate change on ice-free areas under two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate forcing scenarios using temperature-index melt modelling. Under the strongest forcing scenario, ice-free areas could expand by over 17,000 km2 by the end of the century, close to a 25% increase. Most of this expansion will occur in the Antarctic Peninsula, where a threefold increase in ice-free area could drastically change the availability and connectivity of biodiversity habitat. Isolated ice-free areas will coalesce, and while the effects on biodiversity are uncertain, we hypothesize that they could eventually lead to increasing regional-scale biotic homogenization, the extinction of less-competitive species and the spread of invasive species.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature22996

DOI: 10.1038/nature22996

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