5 years ago

Orthogonal Mass Spectrometry-Based Footprinting for Epitope Mapping and Structural Characterization: The IL-6 Receptor upon Binding of Protein Therapeutics

Orthogonal Mass Spectrometry-Based Footprinting for Epitope Mapping and Structural Characterization: The IL-6 Receptor upon Binding of Protein Therapeutics
Michael L. Gross, Richard Y.-C. Huang, Adrienne A. Tymiak, Jingjie Mo, Brett R. Beno, Ke Sherry Li, Ekaterina G. Deyanova, Steve R. O’Neil, Guodong Chen
Higher-order structure (HOS) is a crucial determinant for the biological functions and quality attributes of protein therapeutics. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein footprinting approaches play an important role in elucidating the relationship between protein biophysical properties and structure. Here, we describe the use of a combined method including hydrogen–deuterium exchange (HDX), fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP), and site-specific carboxyl group footprinting to investigate the HOS of protein and protein complexes. The work focuses on implementing complementary solution-phase footprinting approaches that differ in time scale, specificity for protein residue side chains vs backbone as well as selectivity for different residue types to map integratively the epitope of human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) for two adnectins with distinct affinities (Kd, Adnectin1 ∼ 6.2 pM vs Kd, Adnectin2 ∼ 46 nM). Furthermore, the study evaluates the resultant conformation/dynamic change of IL-6R. The suggested epitope, which is conserved for adnectin1 and adnectin2 binding, is a flexible loop that connects two β-strands in the cytokine-binding domain (DII) of IL-6R. We also found that adnectin1, the more strongly binding ligand, induces structural perturbations on two unstructured loops that are distally located beyond the epitope. Those changes are either attenuated or not detected for the case of adnectin2 binding. In addition to providing credibility in epitope determination, utilization of those combined approaches reveals the structural effects that can differentiate protein therapeutics with apparently similar biophysical properties.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01748

DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01748

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