5 years ago

Detecting ancient codispersals and host shifts by double dating of host and parasite phylogenies: Application in proctophyllodid feather mites associated with passerine birds

Sergey V. Mironov, Pavel B. Klimov, Barry M. OConnor
Inferring cophylogeographic events requires matching the timing of these events on both host and symbiont (e.g., parasites) phylogenies because divergences of hosts and their symbionts may not temporally coincide, and host switches may occur. We investigate a large radiation of birds (Passeriformes) and their permanent symbionts, the proctophyllodid feather mites (117 species from 116 bird species; six genes, 11,468 nt aligned) using two time-calibration strategies for mites: fossils only and host phylogeography only. Out of 10 putative cophylogeographic events 4 agree in timing for both symbiont and host events being synchronous co-origins or codispersals; three were based on host shifts, but agree in timing being very close to the origin of modern hosts; two disagree; and one large basal mite split was seemingly independent from host phylogeography. Among these events was an ancient (21–25.3 Mya), synchronous codispersal from the Old World leading to the origin and diversifications of New World emberizoid passerids and their mites, the thraupis + quadratus species groups of Proctophyllodes. Our framework offers a more robust detection of host and symbiont cophylogeographic events (as compared to host-symbiont reconciliation analysis and using host phylogeography for time-calibration) and provides independent data for testing alternative hypotheses on timing of host diversification and dispersal.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/evo.13309

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