3 years ago

Maximum-likelihood approaches reveal signatures of positive selection in BMP15 and GDF9 genes modulating ovarian function in mammalian female fertility

Maximum-likelihood approaches reveal signatures of positive selection in BMP15 and GDF9 genes modulating ovarian function in mammalian female fertility
Han Jilong, Yuqing Chong, Liu Pan, Shishay Girmay Edallew, Teketay Wassie, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Yu Yun, Chenhui Liu, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Zhao Jia Yu, Birhanu Tesema
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the growth factors (GDFs) play an important role in ovarian folliculogenesis and essential regulator of processes of numerous granulosa cells. BMP15 gene variations linked to various ovarian phenotypic consequences subject to the species, from infertility to improved prolificacy in sheep, primary ovarian insufficiency in women or associated with minor subfertility in mouse. To study the evolving role of BMP15 and GDF9, a phylogenetic analysis was performed. To find out the candidate gene associated with prolificacy in mammals, the nucleotide sequence of BMP15 and GDF9 genes was recognized under positive selection in various mammalian species. Maximum-likelihood approaches used on BMP15 and GDF9 genes exhibited a robust divergence and a prompted evolution as compared to other TGFβ family members. Furthermore, among 32 mammalian species, we identified positive selection signals in the hominidae clade resulting to 132D, 147E, 163Y, 191W, and 236P codon sites of BMP15 and 162F, 188K, 206R, 240A, 244L, 246H, 248S, 251D, 253L, 254F and other codon sites of GDF9. The positively selected amino acid sites such as Alanine, Lucien, Arginine, and lysine are important for signaling. In conclusion, this study evidences that GDF9 and BMP15 genes have rapid evolution than other TGFß family members and was subjected to positive selection in the mammalian clade. Selected sites under the positive selection are of remarkable significance for the particular functioning of the protein and consequently for female fertility. In the present study, we investigated that BMP15 and GDF9 genes have evolved rapidly than other TGFß superfamily members and was allowed to selection pressure in mammalian clade. Some positively selected amino acid sites are of significant for the particular role of protein and consequently for female fertility. We presented comprehensive analyses in determination of genetic importance of BMP15 and GDF9. Selection analyses of bone morphogenetic proteins modulating reproduction could facilitate the development of unique strategies that may help for genetic improvement and select individuals with high breeding values for traits of interest as parentages to produce the next generation.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3336

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