5 years ago

3D Graphene–Ni Foam as an Advanced Electrode for High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

3D Graphene–Ni Foam as an Advanced Electrode for High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries
Jin-Ha Hwang, Ki Jae Kim, Jungkuk Lee, Kyubin Lee, Kyoung Woo Kwon, Min-Sik Park
Electrodes composed of multilayered graphene grown on a metal foam (GMF) were prepared by directly growing multilayer graphene sheets on a three-dimensional (3D) Ni-foam substrate via a self-catalyzing chemical vapor deposition process. The multilayer graphene sheets are successfully grown on the Ni-foam substrate surface, maintaining the unique 3D macroporous structure of the Ni foam. The potential use of GMF electrodes in nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFBs) is carefully examined using [Co(bpy)3]+/2+ and [Fe(bpy)3]2+/3+ redox couples. The GMF electrodes display a much improved electrochemical activity and enhanced kinetics toward the [Co(bpy)3]+/2+ (anolyte) and [Fe(bpy)3]2+/3+ (catholyte) redox couples, compared with the bare Ni metal foam electrodes, suggesting that the 2D graphene sheets having lots of interdomain defects provide sufficient reaction sites and secure electric-conduction pathways. Consequently, a nonaqueous RFB cell assembled with GMF electrodes exhibits high Coulombic and voltage efficiencies of 87.2 and 90.9%, respectively, at the first cycle. This performance can be maintained up to the 50th cycle without significant efficiency loss. Moreover, the importance of a rational electrode design for improving electrochemical performance is addressed.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04777

DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04777

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