5 years ago

Constraints on the origin of adakites and porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization in Chongjiang, Southern Gangdese, the Tibetan Plateau

Chongjiang is a low-grade porphyry Cu deposit, located in the Gangdese belt, south Tibet. The petrogenesis and geodynamic settings of the Miocene intrusions associated with the deposit remain controversial. This study presents new results on in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions and U-Pb ages, whole rock major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd isotopes for the adakitic intrusions from Chongjiang deposit. The ore-bearing biotite monzogranite porphyry has adakitic characteristics, with enriched large-ion-lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSE), P and Ti. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the ore-bearing and barren adakites were emplaced at 14.9±0.3Ma and 12.9±0.3Ma, respectively. The porphyry is characterized by relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7059 to 0.7066), and negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (−3.8 to −2.6). Zircon δ18O is slightly higher than mantle values (5.0 to 7.2‰), with varied εHf(t) (−1.0 to 7.6). Most of the in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic data plot in a binary mixing trend between MORB and lower continental crust-derived melts. These results indicate contributions from mixing of a mantle-like source (e.g., slab melts) with continental crust. Interestingly, most of the samples plot in the field defined by Dabie adakites (representing partial melting of the lower continental crust), with several samples near/in the circum-Pacific adakite field (representing partial melting of subducted oceanic slabs), which seemingly indicates that Chongjiang adakites mostly formed through partial melting of lower continental crust, with a small amount derived from oceanic slab melts. These may be plausibly explained by plagioclase retention in the thickened Tibetan continental crust, which lowers Sr contents in the magmas during crustal assimilation. Such a model is supported by other adakite discrimination diagrams, which all point towards slab melting. Crustal contamination can compellingly explain the low grade of the Chongjiang deposit. Considering the temporal-spatial distribution of porphyry Cu deposits, geochemical characteristics and high oxygen fugacity, we propose that the subducting Ninetyeast Ridge probably played a critical role in controlling the formation of Miocene adakites and porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Gangdese belt.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0024493717303237

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