3 years ago

Hot lherzolite exhumation, UHT migmatite formation, and acid volcanism driven by Miocene rollback of the Banda Arc, eastern Indonesia

Hot lherzolite exhumation, UHT migmatite formation, and acid volcanism driven by Miocene rollback of the Banda Arc, eastern Indonesia
The northern Banda Arc, eastern Indonesia, exposes upper mantle/lower crustal complexes comprising lherzolites and granulite facies migmatites of the ‘Kobipoto Complex’. Residual garnet–sillimanite granulites, which contain spinel+quartz inclusions within garnet, experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT; >900°C) conditions at 16Ma due to heat supplied by lherzolites exhumed during slab rollback in the Banda Arc. Here, we present U–Pb zircon ages and new whole-rock geochemical analyses that document a protracted history of high-T metamorphism, melting, and acid magmatism of a common sedimentary protolith. Detrital zircons from the Kobipoto Complex migmatites, with ages between 3.4Ga and 216Ma, show that their protolith was derived from both West Papua and the Archean of Western Australia, and that metamorphism of these rocks on Seram could not have occurred until the Late Triassic. Zircons within the granulites then experienced three subsequent episodes of growth – at 215–173Ma, 25–20Ma, and at c. 16Ma. The population of zircon rims with ages between 215 and 173Ma document significant metamorphic (±partial melting) events that we attribute to subduction beneath the Bird's Head peninsula and Sula Spur, which occurred until the Banda and Argo continental blocks were rifted from the NW Australian margin of Gondwana in the Late Jurassic (from c. 160Ma). Late Oligocene-Early Miocene collision between Australia (the Sula Spur) and SE Asia (northern Sulawesi) was then recorded by crystallisation of several 25–20Ma zircon rims. Thereafter, a large population of c. 16Ma zircon rims grew during subsequent and extensive Middle Miocene metamorphism and melting of the Kobipoto complex rocks beneath Seram under high- to ultrahigh-temperature (HT–UHT) conditions. Lherzolites located adjacent to the granulite-facies migmatites in central Seram equilibrated at 1280–1300°C upon their exhumation to 1GPa (~37km) depth, whereupon they supplied sufficient heat to have metamorphosed adjacent Kobipoto Complex migmatites under UHT conditions at 16Ma. Calculations suggesting slight (~10vol%) mantle melting are consistent with observations of minor gabbroic intrusions and scarce harzburgites. Subsequent extension during continued slab rollback exhumed both the lherzolites and adjacent granulite-facies migmatites beneath extensional detachment faults in western Seram at 6.0–5.5Ma, and on Ambon at 3.5Ma, as recorded by subsequent zircon growth and 40Ar/39Ar ages in these regions. Ambonites, cordierite- and garnet-bearing dacites sourced predominantly from melts generated in the Kobipoto Complex migmatites, were later erupted on Ambon from 3.0 to 1.9Ma.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1342937X16304816

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