Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor gemigliptin protects against vascular calcification in an experimental chronic kidney disease and vascular smooth muscle cells
by Soon-Youn Choi, Hye-Myung Ryu, Eun-Joo Oh, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim, Sun-Hee ParkAlthough dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have various pleiotropic effects, it remains undetermined whether gemigliptin has a beneficial effect on vascular calcification. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of gemigliptin on vascular calcification in a rat model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Gemigliptin attenuated calcification of abdominal aorta and expression of RUNX2 in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, phosphate-induced increase in calcium content was reduced by gemigliptin. Gemigliptin reduced phosphate-induced PiT-1 mRNA expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and NADPH oxidase mRNA expression (p22phox and NOX4). The reduction of oxidative stress by gemigliptin was associated with the downregulation of phospho-PI3K/AKT expression. High phosphate increased the expression of frizzled-3 (FDZ3) and decreased the expression of dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK-1) in the Wnt pathway. These changes were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Gemigliptin restored the decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle cells markers (α-SMA and SM22α) and increased expression of osteogenic makers (CBFA1, OSX, E11, and SOST) induced by phosphate. In conclusion, gemigliptin attenuated vascular calcification and osteogenic trans-differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells via multiple steps including downregulation of PiT-1 expression and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation, phospho-PI3K/AKT, and the Wnt signaling pathway.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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