3 years ago

Chronic fluoride exposure exacerbates headkidney pathology and causes immune commotion in Clarias gariepinus

The current study was aimed to understand the effects of chronic fluoride exposure on fish immune system. African sharp tooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were exposed to 73.45mg/L of fluoride corresponding to 1/10 96h LC50 for 30 d and the effects on general fish health and several immune parameters were studied. Chronic fluoride exposure led to significant alteration in serum biochemical parameters including alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, triglycerides, cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels revealing the detrimental effect of fluoride on general fish health. Upregulation in cytochrome P450 1A expression, both at mRNA and protein level suggested that fluoride activates the detoxification machinery in headkidney (HK) of C. gariepinus. Histopathological analysis of HK from exposed fish further revealed fluoride-induced hypertrophy, increase in melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) and the development of cell-depleted regions. Fluoride reduced headkidney somatic index (HKSI) and the phagocytic potential of headkidney macrophages (HKM). It induced caspase-3-dependent headkidney leukocyte (HKL) apoptosis, elevated superoxide generation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α besides suppressed T-cell proliferation in the exposed fish. We surmise the elevation in superoxide levels coupled with increased TNF-α production to be plausible causes of fluoride-induced HKL apoptosis. It is concluded that chronic fluoride exposure induces structure-function alterations in HK, the primary lymphoid organ in fish leading to impairment in immune responses.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0166445X17302448

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