4 years ago

Simultaneous Enhancement of Photoluminescence, MRI Relaxivity, and CT Contrast by Tuning the Interfacial Layer of Lanthanide Heteroepitaxial Nanoparticles

Simultaneous Enhancement of Photoluminescence, MRI Relaxivity, and CT Contrast by Tuning the Interfacial Layer of Lanthanide Heteroepitaxial Nanoparticles
Robert L. Sah, Noah J. J. Johnson, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Adah Almutairi, Yuran Huang, Esther Cory, Jesse V. Jokerst, Sha He
Nanoparticle (NP) based exogenous contrast agents assist biomedical imaging by enhancing the target visibility against the background. However, it is challenging to design a single type of contrast agents that are simultaneously suitable for various imaging modalities. The simple integration of different components into a single NP contrast agent does not guarantee the optimized properties of each individual components. Herein, we describe lanthanide-based core–shell–shell (CSS) NPs as triple-modal contrast agents that have concurrently enhanced performance compared to their individual components in photoluminescence (PL) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). The key to simultaneous enhancement of PL intensity, MRI r1 relaxivity, and X-ray attenuation capability in CT is tuning the interfacial layer in the CSS NP architecture. By increasing the thickness of the interfacial layer, we show that (i) PL intensity is enhanced from completely quenched/dark state to brightly emissive state of both upconversion and downshifting luminescence at different excitation wavelengths (980 and 808 nm), (ii) MRI r1 relaxivity is enhanced by 5-fold from 11.4 to 52.9 mM–1 s–1 (per Gd3+) at clinically relevant field strength 1.5 T, and (iii) the CT Hounsfield Unit gain is 70% higher than the conventional iodine-based agents at the same mass concentration. Our results demonstrate that judiciously designed contrast agents for multimodal imaging can achieve simultaneously enhanced performance compared to their individual stand-alone structures and highlight that multimodality can be achieved without compromising on individual modality performance.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01753

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01753

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