5 years ago

On the dynamics of the Sri Lanka Dome in the Bay of Bengal

Bulusu Subrahmanyam, V. S. N. Murty, Jessica M. Burns
East of Sri Lanka, in the northern Indian Ocean, a cold dome, known as the Sri Lanka Dome (SLD), develops during southwest monsoon season (June–September). The SLD first forms around May, matures in July, and decays around September, in association with the strong cyclonic wind stress curl. In this study, the structure and dynamics of SLD in response to the climatic events such as the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are examined. Our results reveal that these climatic events modulated the subsurface temperature variability in the thermocline at ∼100 m depth, whose signature was also evident in the satellite-derived sea surface height (SSH) anomaly in the SLD region. We find that the mechanisms for the formation of SLD are consistent with previous research, and there is year-to-year variability in the SLD dynamics. This study also reveals that the atmospheric parameters including vertical wind shear and midtropospheric relative humidity are high over the SLD region and adjacent southern Bay of Bengal and show an upward (increasing) trend over the decades. This has impacted the atmospheric parameters over the northern Bay of Bengal over the decades and as a consequence the total number of monsoon depressions (June–September) decreased over the decades from 1980 to 2015, as reported by the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Thus, the new insight emerged from this study is the variability in the cyclogenesis and the occurrence of total number of monsoon depressions over northern Bay of Bengal over the decades is much related to the SLD dynamics.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/2017JC012986

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