5 years ago

Innate Immune Recognition of Double-stranded RNA Triggers Increased Expression of NKG2D Ligands After Virus Infection.

Esteso, Guerra, Valés-Gómez, Reyburn
Self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system relies on germline-encoded, non-rearranging receptors expressed by innate immune cells recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor is a potent immune-activating receptor that binds human genome-encoded ligands, whose expression is negligible in normal tissues, but increased in stress and disease conditions for reasons that are incompletely understood. Here it is not clear how the immune system reconciles receptor binding of self-proteins with self/non-self discrimination to avoid autoreactivity. We now report that increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection depends on interferon response factors (IRFs) activated by the detection of viral double-stranded RNA by pattern-recognition receptors (RIG-I/MDA-5) and that NKG2D ligand upregulation can be blocked by the expression of viral dsRNA-binding proteins. Thus, innate immunity-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids triggers the infected cell to release interferon for NK cell recruitment and to express NKG2D-ligands to become more visible to the immune system. Finally, the observation that NKG2D-ligand induction is a consequence of signalling by pattern-recognition receptors that have been selected over evolutionary time to be highly pathogen specific explains how the risks of autoreactivity in this system are minimized.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.818393

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.818393

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