5 years ago

Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis induces volume-dependent hypercalciuria

A. Jaafar, M. Vallet, A. Martin, C. Lebely, J. Grellier, I. Tack, M. El Alaoui



Hyponatremia is associated with bone demineralization. We hypothesized that, during hyponatremia, calciuria and calcium balance depend on volemic status. We evaluated calciuria in patients with hyponatremia, secondary to SIAD or hypovolemia. Patients with SIAD exhibited a volemic expansion that was associated with hypercalciuria. Calciuria was proportional to markers of volemia.


Chronic mild hyponatremia has been associated with bone demineralization of unknown mechanisms. During chronic hyponatremia, arginine-vasopressin secretion can result from hypovolemia or from syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuresis (SIAD) that leads to a slightly volemic expansion. Since volemia determines renal calcium excretion and balance, we evaluated calcium homeostasis in patients with chronic hyponatremia, related to SIAD or to hypovolemia.


We retrospectively included all patients referred to our Department between May 2006 and May 2014 for hyponatremia, resulting from SIAD or chronic hypovolemia. None had edema, cirrhosis, cardiac, or renal insufficiency. Exploration included estimation of volemia, extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) measurement with inulin, and calcium homeostasis.


In total, the SIAD and hypovolemic groups included 22 and 7 patients, respectively. The SIAD group exhibited signs of increased volemia: higher glomerular filtration rate, higher fractional excretion of uric acid, and lower plasma renin. ECFV exceeded that of the hypovolemic group and was above usual values. There was no difference between the two groups regarding plasma calcium, PTH, and vitamin D. However, in the SIAD group, calciuria was higher than in the hypovolemic group, reaching levels of hypercalciuria. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between calciuria and markers of volemia.


Our results show that SIAD results in a volemic expansion tendency that is associated with a decrease in renal calcium reabsorption and thus hypercalciuria, whereas in the hypovolemic group, calciuria was not increased. Therefore, renal loss of calcium and bone demineralization in SIAD patients could be partly induced by volemic expansion.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-017-4186-x

DOI: 10.1007/s00198-017-4186-x

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