3 years ago

Frailty Correlates with Postoperative Mortality and Major Morbidity After Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

Konstantinos Chouliaras, Edward A. Levine, Ioannis T. Konstantinidis, Konstantinos I. Votanopoulos, Byrne Lee



Frailty is increasingly being recognized as a powerful predictor of postoperative outcomes for cancer patients. This study examined the role of the modified frailty index (MFI) in predicting outcomes for patients undergoing cytoreduction (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).


Data from National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) patients who underwent CRS/HIPEC between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. The MFI, validated for use in NSQIP, was used to determine correlation between frailty and postoperative outcomes.


The analysis included 1171 patients. The patients were divided into three groups: non-frail (MFI 0), mildly frail (MFI 1 or 2), or severely frail (MFI ≥ 3). More than 90% of patients had an MFI of 0 or 1. The MFI was 0 for 716 patients (61.1%), 1 for 373 patients (31.9%), 2 for 76 patients (6.5%), 3 for 5 patients (0.4%), and 4 for 1 patient (0.1%). Overall, grade 4 Clavien morbidity was observed in 99 patients (8.5%) and mortality in 26 patients (2.2%). For non-frail, mildly frail, and severely frail patients, worsening frailty correlated respectively with increases in grade 4 Clavien morbidity (6.7% vs. 10.9% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.004) and mortality (1.3% vs. 3.3% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, which included age of 70 years or older and albumin level of 3 or lower, frailty was the only factor that correlated with postoperative mortality: non-frail:reference, mildly frail [odds ratio (OR) 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–6.73; p = 0.025], severely frail (OR 29.1, 95% CI 4–210.87; p = 0.01), age of 70 years or older (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.34–3.93; p = 0.81), and albumin level of 3 or lower (OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.84–6.98; p = 0.1).


Frailty is a strong predictor of major grade 4 morbidity and mortality after CRS/HIPEC. Severe frailty should be a relative contraindication to CRS/HIPEC. Frailty correlates should be a selection factor in the evaluation of all candidates for CRS/HIPEC.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1245/s10434-017-6111-0

DOI: 10.1245/s10434-017-6111-0

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