4 years ago

Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol copolymer with detachable balloons for the embolisation of direct carotid cavernous fistula: a single-centre experience

Tielin Li, Lingfeng Lai, Zhenjun Li, Xifeng Li, Chuanzhi Duan, Xuying He, Xin Zhang



To characterise the safety, efficacy and cost of direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treatment using polyvinyl alcohol copolymer or detachable balloons.


We reviewed retrospectively patients with direct CCFs treated with either a detachable balloon or polyvinyl alcohol copolymer at our hospital from 2005 to 2015 and identified 94 patients with 105 CCFs. All patients had follow-up angiograms. The CCF occlusion rate, procedure complication rate, treatment expense and operation time were recorded.


With a mean of 5.4 months of angiographic follow-up, the complete occlusion rate and recanalisation rate of the polyvinyl alcohol copolymer group was not significantly different from that of the detachable balloon group. The treatment expense was much higher and the operation time was much longer in the polyvinyl alcohol copolymer group than the detachable balloon group (P < 0.001).


Embolisation of CCF with polyvinyl alcohol copolymer is as safe and effective as detachable balloon but has a much higher cost and longer operation time.

Key Points

Carotid-cavernous fistula results from a damaged carotid artery.

Detachable balloons have been used with success for many years.

Some reported excellent outcomes after embolisation with polyvinyl alcohol copolymer.

Treatment expense is much higher in the polyvinyl alcohol copolymer group.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00330-017-4864-2

DOI: 10.1007/s00330-017-4864-2

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