3 years ago

In-situ Biasing and Off-axis Electron Holography of a ZnO Nanowire.

Monroy, Pernot, Sallet, Sartel, McLeod, den Hertog, Donatini
Quantitative characterization of electrically active dopants and surface charges in nano-objects is challenging, since most characterization techniques using electrons, ions or field ionization effects study the chemical presence of dopants, which are not necessarily electrically active. We perform cathodoluminescence and voltage contrast experiments on a contacted and biased ZnO nanowire with a Schottky contact and measure the depletion length as a function of reverse bias. We compare these results with state-of-the-art off-axis electron holography in combination with electrical in-situ biasing on the same nanowire. The extension of the depletion length under bias observed in scanning electron microscopy based techniques is unusual as it follows a linear rather than square root dependence, and is therefore difficult to model by bulk equations or finite element simulations. In contrast, the analysis of the axial depletion length observed by holography may be compared with three-dimensional simulations, which allows estimating an n-doping level of 1×10<sup>18</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup> and negative sidewall surface charge of 2.5×10<sup>12</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> of the nanowire, resulting in a radial surface depletion to a depth of 36 nm. We found excellent agreement between the simulated diameter of the undepleted core and the active thickness observed in the experimental data. By combining TEM holography experiments and finite element simulation of the NW electrostatics, the bulk-like character of the nanowire core is revealed.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa923c

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa923c

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