3 years ago

Hypoxia tolerance and responses to hypoxic stress during heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon (<i>Salmo salar</i>)

Sven Martin Jørgensen, Marta Alarcon, Vidar Aspehaug, Morten Lund, Espen Rimstad, Mark Powell, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Maria Krudtaa Dahle

by Morten Lund, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Marta Alarcon, Mark Powell, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Sven Martin Jørgensen

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted. Periodic hypoxic stress did not influence infection levels or histopathological changes in the heart. Individual incipient lethal oxygen saturation (ILOS) was examined using a standardized hypoxia challenge test (HCT). At 7 WPI, i.e. peak level of infection, both PRV and PRV-H groups exhibited reduced hypoxia tolerance compared to non-infected fish. Three weeks later (10 WPI), during peak levels of pathological changes, reduced hypoxia tolerance was still observed for the PRV group while PRV-H performed equal to non-infected fish, implying a positive effect of the repeated exposure to hypoxic stress. This was in line with maximum heart rate (fHmax) measurements, showing equal performance of PRV-H and non-infected groups, but lower fHmax above 19°C as well as lower temperature optimum (Topt) for aerobic scope for PRV, suggesting reduced cardiac performance and thermal tolerance. In contrast, the PRV-H group had reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon suffering from HSMI have reduced hypoxia tolerance and cardiac performance, which can be improved by preconditioning fish to transient hypoxic stress episodes.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181109

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.