5 years ago

Parental-genome dosage effects on the transcriptome of F1 hybrid triploid embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana

Martin Braud, Peter C. McKeown, Reetu Tuteja, Charles Spillane, Antoine Fort
Genomic imprinting in the seed endosperm could be due to unequal parental genome contribution effects in triploid endosperm tissue that trigger parent-of-origin specific activation and/or silencing of loci prone to genomic imprinting. To determine whether genomic imprinting is triggered by unequal parental genome contribution effects, we generated a whole-genome transcriptome dataset of F1 hybrid triploid embryos (as mimics of F1 hybrid triploid endosperm). For the vast majority of genes, the parental contributions to their expression levels in the F1 triploid hybrid embryos follows a biallelic and linear expression pattern. While allele-specific expression (ASE) bias was detected, such effects were predominantly parent-of-origin independent. We demonstrate that genomic imprinting is largely absent from F1 triploid embryos, strongly suggesting that neither triploidy nor unequal parental genome contribution are key triggers of genomic imprinting in plants. However, extensive parental-genome dosage effects on gene expression were observed between the reciprocal F1 hybrid embryos, particularly for genes involved in defence response and nutrient reservoir activity, potentially leading to the seed size differences between reciprocal triploids. We further determined that unequal parental genome contribution in F1 triploids can lead to over-expression effects that are parent-of-origin dependent, and which are not observed in diploid or tetraploid embryos where the parental-genome dosage is balanced. Overall, our study demonstrates that neither triploidy nor unequal parental genome contribution are sufficient to trigger imprinting in plant tissues, suggesting that genomic imprinting is an intrinsic and unique feature of the triploid seed endosperm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13740

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