5 years ago

Occurrence of selected elements (Ti, Sr, Ba, V, Ga, Sn, Tl, and Sb) in deposited dust and human hair samples: implications for human health in Pakistan

Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis, Alessandra Cincinelli, Chi Qiaoqiao, Zafar Iqbal Tanveer, Sikandar I. Mulla, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Nadeem Ali, Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat, Heqing Shen, Zafeer Saqib


The current study determined, for the first time, the levels of titanium (Ti), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), vanadium (V), gallium (Ga), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and antinomy (Sb), in deposited dust, and human hair collected from general population of different geographical areas of Pakistan. All the samples were prepared by microwave digestion and measured by ICP-MS. The results showed that on deposited dust samples, the detected elements followed the descending trend as: Ti > Sr > Ba > V > Ga > Sn > Tl > Sb similar to the upper continental crust. The deposited dust samples from low elevation areas exhibited highest levels of all studied elements (except antimony which was higher in soil samples from mountainous areas), followed by rive plains, mountainous areas, and highland valleys. In contrast, on human hair samples, the elements followed the descending trend as: Sr > Ba > Ti > Ga > V > Sn > Sb > Tl respectively. Ba, Ga, and V concentrations were higher in soil samples from lower elevation Indus plain, and Sr, Tl, Sb, and Ti were higher in samples from mountainous areas. The bioaccumulation trend of all studied elements was in descending order as follows: Sb, Ga, Sn, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Tl, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix evidenced both geological influences and anthropogenic activities as potential sources of these studied elements. On the other hand, the risk estimation (HI > 1) concluded that population were at higher health risk (non-carcinogenic) for Ga and Ti. All other studied rare elements were within safe limit for humans from all zones.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-0346-y

DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0346-y

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