3 years ago

Fundamentally Addressing Bromine Storage through Reversible Solid-State Confinement in Porous Carbon Electrodes: Design of a High-Performance Dual-Redox Electrochemical Capacitor

Fundamentally Addressing Bromine Storage through Reversible Solid-State Confinement in Porous Carbon Electrodes: Design of a High-Performance Dual-Redox Electrochemical Capacitor
Monica Romelczyk, Galen D. Stucky, Shannon W. Boettcher, Xiulei Ji, Xingfeng Wang, Aidan Taylor, Brian Evanko, Seung Joon Yoo
Research in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and rechargeable batteries is converging to target systems that have battery-level energy density and capacitor-level cycling stability and power density. This research direction has been facilitated by the use of redox-active electrolytes that add faradaic charge storage to increase energy density of the EDLCs. Aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors (redox ECs) have, however, performed poorly due to cross-diffusion of soluble redox couples, reduced cycle life, and low operating voltages. In this manuscript, we propose that these challenges can be simultaneously met by mechanistically designing a liquid-to-solid phase transition of oxidized catholyte (or reduced anolyte) with confinement in the pores of electrodes. Here we demonstrate the realization of this approach with the use of bromide catholyte and tetrabutylammonium cation that induces reversible solid-state complexation of Br2/Br3. This mechanism solves the inherent cross-diffusion issue of redox ECs and has the added benefit of greatly stabilizing the reactive bromine generated during charging. Based on this new mechanistic insight on the utilization of solid-state bromine storage in redox ECs, we developed a dual-redox EC consisting of a bromide catholyte and an ethyl viologen anolyte with the addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide. In comparison to aqueous and organic electric double-layer capacitors, this system enhances energy by factors of ca. 11 and 3.5, respectively, with a specific energy of ∼64 W·h/kg at 1 A/g, a maximum power density >3 kW/kg, and cycling stability over 7000 cycles.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b04603

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b04603

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