3 years ago

Effects of Combined Lysosomal and Mitochondrial Photodamage in a Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line: The Role of Paraptosis

Effects of Combined Lysosomal and Mitochondrial Photodamage in a Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line: The Role of Paraptosis
David Kessel, John J. Reiners
We previously reported that a low level of lysosomal photodamage potentiated the phototoxic effect of subsequent mitochondrial photodamage mediated by the benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) in murine hepatoma 1c1c7 cells. This was attributed to release of Ca2+ from damaged lysosomes and a calpain-mediated conversion of the autophagy-related protein ATG5 to a pro-apoptotic fragment. We now report a comparison of these results with those obtained with the human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cell line. A549 cells contained lower levels of ATG5 and were less responsive than 1c1c7 cultures to the PDT combination. A rapid appearance of caspase 3/7 activation together with formation of condensed chromatin indicated initiation of apoptosis in both cell lines, but to a lesser extent in A549 cultures. Both cell lines became highly vacuolated within 16 h of combination PDT or an equivalent phototoxic dose from BPD alone. The vacuole periphery was labeled with a fluorescent probe for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and vacuole formation was prevented by presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. These effects are characteristics of a caspase-independent death mode termed paraptosis previously associated with ER stress. These studies suggest that paraptosis may be a more frequent outcome of PDT than has hitherto been realized. Morphology of cell death in A549 (NSCLC) cells during apoptosis (left) and paraptosis (right).

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/php.12805

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