3 years ago

Potential Therapeutic Applications of Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligands and Opportunities for A2A Receptor Imaging

Xiaoyun Zhou, Rudi A. J. O. Dierckx, Shivashankar Khanapur, Aren Waarde, Erik F. J. Vries, Kiichi Ishiwata, Philip H. Elsinga, Gert Luurtsema, Hideo Tsukada
Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the human striatum, and at lower densities in the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and cells of the immune system. Antagonists of these receptors are potentially useful for the treatment of motor fluctuations, epilepsy, postischemic brain damage, or cognitive impairment, and for the control of an immune checkpoint during immunotherapy of cancer. A2AR agonists may suppress transplant rejection and graft-versus-host disease; be used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis; be locally applied to promote wound healing and be employed in a strategy for transient opening of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) so that therapeutic drugs and monoclonal antibodies can enter the brain. Increasing A2AR signaling in adipose tissue is also a potential strategy to combat obesity. Several radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of A2ARs have been developed in recent years. This review article presents a critical overview of the potential therapeutic applications of A2AR ligands, the use of A2AR imaging in drug development, and opportunities and limitations of PET imaging in future research.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/med.21432

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