3 years ago

Structure–activity relationships of fraxamoside as an unusual xanthine oxidase inhibitor

Structure–activity relationships of fraxamoside as an unusual xanthine oxidase inhibitor
Pietro Amodeo, Margherita Gavagnin, Gennaro Raimo, Lina Antenucci, Rosa Maria Vitale

Abstract

Fraxamoside, a macrocyclic secoiridoid glucoside featuring a hydroxytyrosol group, was recently identified as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) comparable in potency in vitro to the standard antigout drug allopurinol. However, this activity and its considerably higher value than its derivatives oleuropein, oleoside 11-methyl ester, and hydroxytyrosol are not explained by structure–activity relationships (SARs) of known XOIs. To exclude allosteric mechanisms, we first determined the inhibition kinetic of fraxamoside. The resulting competitive mechanism prompted a computational SAR characterization, combining molecular docking and dynamics, which fully explained the behavior of fraxamoside and its derivatives, attributed the higher activity of the former to conformational properties of its macrocycle, and showed a substantial contribution of the glycosidic moiety to binding, in striking contrast with glycoside derivatives of most other XOIs. Overall, fraxamoside emerged as a lead compound for a new class of XOIs potentially characterized by reduced interference with purine metabolism.

Publisher URL: http://tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14756366.2016.1252758

DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2016.1252758

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