The low expression of miR-451 predicts a worse prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer cases
by Akiteru Goto, Masamitsu Tanaka, Makoto Yoshida, Michinobu Umakoshi, Hiroshi Nanjo, Kouya Shiraishi, Motonobu Saito, Takashi Kohno, Sei Kuriyama, Hayato Konno, Kazuhiro Imai, Hajime Saito, Yoshihiro Minamiya, Daichi MaedaPurpose
miR-451 is a tumor suppressive microRNA with several target genes, including Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). As little is known about the expression and clinicopathological significance of mir-451 in NSCLC, we performed a clinicopathological study of 370 NSCLC cases to clarify them. Cell biological experiments were also performed on NSCLC cell lines to confirm the tumor-suppressive role of miR-451 and whether or not MIF is targeted by miR-451.Methods
We analyzed 370 NSCLC cases for the miR-451 expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the MIF expression by immunohistochemistry. Eighty-four background lung tissue samples were also evaluated for the miR-451 expression. The clinicopathological and genetic factors surveyed were the disease-free survival, smoking status, histological type, disease stage, EGFR gene mutations and ALK rearrangements. In 286 adenocarcinoma cases, the invasive status (adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma) was also evaluated. Five NSCLC cell lines (H23, H441, H522, H1703, and H1975) were cultured and evaluated for their miR-451 and MIF expression. The cell lines with lower miR-451 and higher MIF expressions were then selected and transfected with miR-451-mimic to observe its effects on MIF expression, Akt and Erk status, cell proliferation, and cell migration.Results
The miR-451 expression was down-regulated in cancer tissues compared with background lung tissues (P<0.0001). Factors such as advanced disease stage, positive pleural invasion and nodal status and being a smoker were significantly correlated with a lower expression of miR-451 (P<0.05 each), while EGFR gene mutations and ALK rearrangements were not. In adenocarcinoma, invasive and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma showed lower expression of miR-451 than adenocarcinoma in situ (P<0.0005, respectively). A survival analysis showed that a lower expression of miR-451 was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis for NSCLC (P<0.05). The MIF expression was inversely correlated with the miR-451 expression. Out of 5 NSCLC cell lines examined, H441 and H1975 showed higher MIF and lower miR-451 expressions. After the transfection of miR-451-mimic, the MIF expression and phosphorylated Akt expression of these cell lines was suppressed, as were cell proliferation and cell migration.Conclusion
This clinicopathological study of 370 NSCLC cases and the cell biological studies of NSCLC cell lines clarified the tumor-suppressive role of miR-451 and its prognostic value. We also validated MIF as a target of miR-451 in NSCLC.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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