Cerebrospinal fluid matrix metalloproteinase 9 levels, blood-brain barrier permeability, and treatment outcome in tuberculous meningitis
by Sharada Mailankody, Gurukiran V. Dangeti, Rajendiran Soundravally, Noyal M. Joseph, Jharna Mandal, Tarun K. Dutta, Tamilarasu KadhiravanObjectives
Tuberculous meningitis is characterized by elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, it is unclear whether elevated MMP9 levels are associated with poor treatment outcome. We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment MMP9 levels in the CSF would be higher in tuberculous meningitis patients experiencing a poor treatment outcome.Methods
We prospectively assessed the treatment outcome in a consecutive sample of human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with tuberculous meningitis. We defined good outcome as survival without severe neurological disability (modified Rankin scale scores 0–2). We estimated levels of MMP9 and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP1) on pretreatment CSF samples. We used albumin index to assess blood-brain barrier permeability.Results
We studied 40 patients (23 males [58%]) with tuberculous meningitis. Sixteen patients (40%) had stage 3 disease. On follow-up, 18 (45%) patients had a poor treatment outcome—15 patients died and 3 had severe neurological disability. Pretreatment MMP9 levels were not associated with treatment outcome (median [interquartile range], 254 [115–389] vs. 192 [60–383] ng/mL in good vs. poor outcome groups; P = 0.693). MMP9 levels did not correlate with the albumin index (Spearman’s rho = 0.142; P = 0.381). However, MMP9 levels significantly correlated with CSF glucose levels (rho = −0.419; P = 0.007) and admission Glasgow coma scale score (rho = 0.324; P = 0.032). Likewise, TIMP1 levels also did not differ by treatment outcome (1239 [889–1511] vs. 1522 [934–1949] ng/mL; P = 0.201). MMP9/TIMP1 ratio that reflects net proteolytic activity was also not different between the two groups (0.191 [0.107–0.250] vs. 0.163 [0.067–0.34]; P = 0.625).Conclusion
Our findings do not support the hypothesis that pretreatment levels of MMP9 would be higher in tuberculous meningitis patients experiencing a poor treatment outcome. Further, MMP9 levels in the CSF did not correlate with blood-brain barrier permeability in patients with tuberculous meningitis.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.
Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.