3 years ago

Stimulation of rat cranial dura mater with potassium chloride causes CGRP release into the cerebrospinal fluid and increases medullary blood flow

Primary headaches may be accompanied by increased intracranial blood flow induced by the release of the potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from activated meningeal afferents. We aimed to record meningeal and medullary blood flow simultaneously and to localize the sites of CGRP release in rodent preparations in vivo and ex vivo. Blood flow in the exposed rat parietal dura mater and the medulla oblongata was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, while the dura was stimulated by topical application of 60mM potassium chloride (KCl). Samples of jugular venous plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the cisterna magna were analysed for CGRP concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay. In a hemisected rat skull preparation lined with dura mater the CGRP releasing effect of KCl superfusion was examined. Superfusion of the dura mater with KCl decreased meningeal blood flow unless alpha-adrenoceptors were blocked by phentolamine, whereas the medullary blood flow was increased. The same treatment caused increased CGRP concentrations in jugular plasma and CSF and induced significant CGRP release in the hemisected rat skull preparation. Anaesthesia of the trigeminal ganglion by injection of lidocaine reduced increases in medullary blood flow and CGRP concentration in the CSF upon meningeal KCl application. CGRP release evoked by depolarisation of meningeal afferents is accompanied by increased blood flow in the medulla oblongata but not the dura mater. This discrepancy can be explained by the smooth muscle depolarising effect of KCl and the activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor mechanisms. The medullary blood flow response is most likely mediated by CGRP released from activated central terminals of trigeminal afferents. Increased blood supply of the medulla oblongata and CGRP release into the CSF may also occur in headaches accompanying vigorous activation of meningeal afferents.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0143417916301366

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